Section 1. Интернациональные слова и «ложные друзья» переводчика.  

Section 1. Интернациональные слова и «ложные друзья» переводчика.

К интернациональный словам относятся слова, заимствованные из других языков. Такие слова сходны по звучанию, написанию и значению

Contrast Dumping Manager Inflation television Контраст Демпинг Менеджер Инфляция телевидение

Существут гораздо больше слов, которые мы называем псевдоинтернациональными, или «ложными друзьями» переводчика. В сопоставлении русского и английского языков эти слова можно подразделить на три группы

1. Полное несовпадение по значению (т.е. слова со сходным написанием и произношением, но совершенно другим значением)

accurate actual advocate aspirant bullion clay complexion compositor corpse data decade decoration Dutch fabric familiar точный, а не аккуратный; действительный, а не актуальный; сторонник, защитник, а не адвокат претендент, а не аспирант; слиток (золота или серебра), а не бульон; глина, а не клей; цвет лица, а не комплекция; наборщик, а не композитор; труп, а не корпус; данные, а не дата; десятилетие, а не декада; знак отличия, украшение, а не декорация; голландский, а не датский; ткань, а не фабрика; известный, знакомый, а не фамильярный; fraction list invalid magazine mayor physician principal production prospect rapport replica resin troops velvet дробь (матем.), а не фракция; список, а не лист; недействительный, а не инвалид журнал, а не магазин; мэр, а не майор; врач-терапевт, а не физик; основной, а не принципиальный; производство, а не продукция; перспектива, а не проспект; добрые отношения, а не рапорт; точная копия, а не реплика; смола, а не резина; войска, а не трупы; бархат, а не вельвет

2. Частичное несовпадение по значению (т.е. слова со сходным написанием и произношением, но значение которых может иметь более широкий/узкий семантический диапазон)

authority activity aggressive balance cabinet camera character champion collect concrete conductor власть (реже - авторитет); деятельность, (реже - активность); энергичный, настойчивый, а не только "агрессивный"; сальдо, остаток, а не только "баланс"; мебельная секция, а если и "кабинет",то министров, т.е. правительство; фотоаппарат (реже - камера); персонаж, а не только "характер"; борец, поборник,, а не только "чемпион"; взимать, а не только "собирать" или "коллекционировать"; бетон, а не только "конкретный"; проводник; дирижер, а не только "кондуктор"; conference contribution control convention сору correspondence credit critical department dramatic element panel figure officer regular встреча, а не только "конференция"; вклад (реже - контрибуция); управлять, а не только "контролировать"; съезд, а не только "конвенция"; экземпляр, а не только "копия"; соответствие, заметка в газете, а не только "корреспонденция"и"переписка"; заслуга, а не только "кредит"; очень важный, а не только "критический"; управление, факультет (США), министерство (США), а не только "департамент"; решающий, а не только "драматический /драматичный"; стихия, а не только "элемент"; секция (на конференции), а не только панель рисунок, цифра, а не только фигура чиновник, а не только офицер обычный, а не только регулярный.




3. Слова со схожим написанием.

censure (n)(v) census(n) onsensus(n) complement (n) (v) compliment (n)(v) conscious a) conscientious (a) continual (a) continuous (a) council (n) counsel (n) data (n) date (n) dawn (n) down (adv) deprecate (v) depreciate (v) draught (n) drought (n) draughts (n) (UK) economic (a) economical (a) eminent (a) 'imminent (a) жесткая критика, обвинять перепись консенсус,согласие дополнение, комплект; дополнять комплимент, похвала; выразить комплимент сознающий, в сознании добросовестный часто повторяющийся длительный, беспрерывный совет (муниципалитет) обсуждение; адвокат данные дата рассвет вниз возражать падать в цене тяга воздуха, сквозняк засуха шашки экономический экономный, бережливый выдающийся, видный неизбежный, надвигающийся expand(v) expend(v) historic (a) historical (a) ingenious (a) ingenuous (a) later (adv) latter (a) letter (n) lose (v) loose (v) meter (n) moral (a) morale (n) persecute (v) prosecute (v) personal (a) personnel (n) policy (n) politics (n) principal (a) principal (n) principle (n) raise (v) rise (v) vacation vocation расширять(ся) расходовать (средства) имеющий историческое значение относящийся к истории изобретательный, искусный искренний, прямой, простой позже последний из перечисленных буква, письмо терять свободный, без ограничений моральный,этический боевой дух подвергать гонению, преследовать по суду личный, персональный персонал политика (как линия поведения) политика(род занятий) главный, основной директор школы (U.S.) принцип, правило поднимать, повышать возрастать отпуск призвание,профессия

Упражнение 1. Переведите письменно, обращая внимание на выделенные курсивом слова.



1. Cynics point out that U.S. slumps have often happened when people surfeited with predictions that did not come off ceased to believe in them.

2. The heaviest blow that the atom bomb fanatics got, however, came with the dramatic announcement that the Russians also have got the bomb.

3. As they participate in the fight for dramatic reforms; large sections of the population come to realize the necessity of unity of action with the working class and become more active politically.

4. The Administration, of course, is loath to contemplate such a fundamental change in its foreign policy. The stakes are too high and American bonds with Europe too numerous to per­mit such a dramatic situation.

5. The Prime-Minister will reply to the speeches on Monday, after informal talks last night, this evening and tomorrow with the Commonwealth Prime Ministers, who have been invited in three groups.

6. This policy will ensure that successive currency crises do not affect the level of economic activity and overall welfare of the nation.

7. A general strike is one which affects an entire industry, an entire locality or a whole country.

8. Such developments would, emphasize the region's economic importance and growth potential which would be reflected in its population growth, housing and overspill problems.


Section 2. Article

Jot down the key information and retell

Catchy and Trendy Business

Sports is the toy department of human life. Howard Cosell

The world of sport is continually changing over the years, and the use of technology is just one of those areas that have made an impact on many sports in the modern day. Sporting technologies are man-made means developed to reach human interests in a particular sport. One criticism of the use of technology is that it can slow down the speed of the game, but on the other hand for many people it makes watching it more enjoyable to see the correct decisions being made. Most professional sports in the United States have long used instant replay and other high-tech aids to help referees make the right call. Hawk-eye is the name of a computer and camera system which traces a ball's trajectory. It is being used in international cricket and tennis, and many other sports are also looking at making use of this technology.

Sports gear such as clothing and footwear should be user-friendly and include valuable properties such as strength, flexibility, density, thickness, durability, resistance to moisture and more importantly cost. Footwear is generally considered more for comfort and injury avoidance rather than performance enhancement, whereas clothing such as the full body suits used in swimming are often claimed to rationalise the competitor’s performance times. Sporting equipment such as the composite tennis racket has been created in order to provide enhanced ball speed, and reduce the potential vibration that can lead to a condition known as tennis elbow.

3. The carbon-fiber vaulting pole, javelins with spiral tails, golf balls with special dimple patterns, stiffer carbon-fiber tennis rackets, bicycles with new types of wheels all lead to "further and faster." Where should this end? How about electronically guided darts, heat-seeking missiles for grouse-shooting, solar-energy-enhanced bicycles, and terrain-following golf balls that automatically find the lowest local elevation on a putting surface (the bottom of the hole)? Can we ensure that people are competing and not the advanced materials?

4. In those sports incorporating individuals with a particular disability, there are a variety of methods in which assistive technology can be applied. Governments are placing increasing importance on the development of assistive technology for disabled persons, both as a matter of civil rights for these persons and the desire to make them more independent and productive members of society. For example, modifications to buildings can be made to make them wheelchair accessible, specialised equipment can also be produced and training to sports members can be offered in order to give specific assistance to those with a disability.

5. The Olympic Games started with a principle of amateur competition with those who practiced a sport professionally considered to have an unfair advantage over those who practiced it merely as a hobby. Grassroots sport is a popular phrase which covers the amateur participation in sport at lower levels, normally without pretension towards higher achievement, and is in line with the "sport for all" mentality, where enjoyment is the primary reason for participation. The use of modern technologies in sport may mean that competition at the uppermost level is only affordable to the leading top athletes due to the potential high costs of specialised sports equipment. In the meantime, the Olympics remain a rich man’s festival and a profitable business with more and more investors invading in this field.

Section 3. Memory Exercise

Ex.1. Train these phrases using "snowball” technique.

The 2012 Olympics

  1. Bookmakers expect record gambling on the 2012 Olympics after the opening ceremony prompted a flood of bets on event mastermind Danny Boyle receiving a knighthood - and confusion over wagers laid on who would light the Olympic flame.
  2. But in the end, seven young athletes selected by seven British Olympians lit the flame in unison, causing divides in the bookmaking ranks over how to handle the bet.

Chinese teenager Ye Shiwen smashed the world record to win the gold medal in the women's 400 metres individual medley on Saturday, while Australia were surprise winners in the women's 4x100 metres freestyle final.

The 16-year-old unleashed an incredible sprint over the concluding freestyle leg to stop the clock at four minutes 28.43 seconds and became the first woman to break a long-course world record since the ban on polyurethane bodysuits at the end of 2009.

World number one Roger Federer survived a scare in his opening Olympics singles match against Colombia's Alejandro Falla before prevailing 6-3 5-7 6-3 on a packed Wimbledon Centre Court to book his place in the second round.


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